Honey Mushroom

Armillaria, Shoestring Fungus, Bootlace Fungus

Armillaria mellea

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The honey mushroom is a woodland fungus known for its ability to colonize and kill a variety of trees and woody shrubs. This genus is particularly interesting because of the armillaria root rot it causes in forests, leading to large rings or arcs of dead trees in the affected areas.

Honey Mushroom

Common Name
Honey Mushroom

Other Names

Armillaria, Shoestring Fungus, Bootlace Fungus

Latin Name

Armillaria mellea


Honey mushrooms have a wide distribution and can be found in North America, Europe, and parts of Asia.


They usually have a yellow-brown cap that’s sticky when moist. The gills are white and sometimes produce a whitish spore print. One distinctive feature is the presence of a white, net-like pattern on the stem near the cap.


The cap diameter ranges from 3 to 15 cm, and the stem can be between 8 to 20 cm tall.


Honey mushrooms are primarily wood-decay fungi, thriving on hardwoods and conifers, often at the base of trees or on stumps and logs.


They are parasitic and saprotrophic, meaning they can extract nutrients from living trees as well as decompose dead wood.


Beginning as spores, they grow as mycelium, colonizing wood. Once matured, the mycelium produces fruiting bodies (the visible mushrooms). These mushrooms then release spores, and the cycle continues. Their rhizomorphs (root-like structures) help them spread and infect trees.

Defense Mechanisms

The honey mushroom doesn’t have specific defenses against predators, but it’s worth noting that while many consider them edible, they can cause adverse reactions in some individuals. Proper cooking is advised, and they should never be consumed raw. Always ensure accurate identification before consumption.

Ecological Importance

While they play a significant role in decomposing dead wood, honey mushrooms can also be problematic due to the tree diseases they cause. They have both detrimental effects in forests and beneficial effects in recycling nutrients.

Conservation Status

They are common and not considered threatened.
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